Electronic Voting


The Cryptography and Information Security research group of MIT's Laboratory for Computer Sciencehas a long-standing interest in electronic voting and the security of voting technology.

Professor Ronald L. Rivesthas led this project. Other key participants have been Mark Herschberg, Kazho Ohta,Ben Adida, Brandon DuRette, Rachel Greenstadt, and Kevin McDonald.

Our sponsors have included: DARPA (DARPA contract DABT63-96-C-0018, "Security for Distributed Computer Systems") and NTT. (Thanks!)


ne part of our research has been the implementation of the EVOX voting scheme, and testing its use in MIT campus-wide student elections. The scheme is based on the paper, "A practical secret voting scheme for large scale elections", by Atsushi Fujioka, Tatsuaki Okamoto, and Kazuo Ohta (Proceedings AUSCRYPT '92, 1993), pages 244-251.

The original implementation was done by Mark Herschberg as part of his>Master's thesis.The protocol details are listedhere.

EVOX has recently reached what we're calling version 2.0beta. EVOX has a new interface, built entirely in HTML, that links to the EVOX Java applet via a few simple Javascript procedures, using Netscape LiveConnect. A generalized Object Store interface is now being used for the Anonymizer, so that the system can easily be switched over to a database-backed system using JDBC-to-Oracle. (March 13th, 1999)

The EVOX system ran the UA Elections, from March 10th to March 14th, 1999.

On May 25th, 1999 a second branch of the EVOX system has been created which uses multiple administrators for vote signing. This should improve the security by preventing the administrator from forging votes. This work was done as a part of a Bachelors thesis by Brandon DuRette.

In no specific order, we plan to do the following over the next few weeks and months: (1) Use JDBC to store votes in a database. (2) Add ability to have multiple counters (3) Explore other protocols (modularize out the protocol?) (4) Post full documentation of protocol, changes made to it for practical reasons, and Java implementation

For any information on using EVOX, how EVOX works, or on electronic voting in general, please don't hesitate to contactBen Adida.


Rachel Greenstadt has prepared a shortbibliography of research on electronic voting. (January, 2000)


Calfornia Voter Foundation

Michael Shamos's paper, "Electronic Voting--Evaluating the Threat"

Michael Shamos's 11/15/00 talk on voting in Florida (given as a CMU Distinguished Lecture)

Election Data Services(has map of voting technologies)

Voting Technologies

Internet Policy Institute Report on Internet Voting

  1. Also available here.

Report of the Select Elections Task Forceprepared by the Collins Center for Public Policy for the State of Florida.

MIT-CalTech Voting Technology Project (See the press announcement.)

Lorrie Cranor's home page (many voting-relevant links)

One of her pages devoted to voting

Rebecca Mercuri's page on Electronic Voting

Peter Neumann on voting

Peter Neumann's list of election problems

California Electronic Voting Task Force Report

Avi Rubin's note on electronic voting.

  1. html
  2. pdf

The Voting Integrity Project

Accuracy, Integrity, and Security in Computerized Vote-Tallying by Roy G. Saltman (NIST report).

Evaluating Voting Technology by Douglas Jones.

VoteHere.Net site

  1. VoteHere.Net page on "recounts"