Soft Robotics

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Overview

Body compliance is a salient feature in many natural systems. Compliant bodies offer inherent robustness to uncertainty, adaptability to environmental variation, and the capacity to redirect and distribute applied forces. In an effort to make machines more capable, our aim is to exploit this principle and design softness into robots.

People Involved

Lab Members

Robert Katzschmann

Brandon Araki

Joseph DelPreto

Shuguang Li

Robert MacCurdy

Jeffrey Lipton

David Dorhout

Aykut Satici

Russ Tedrake

Daniela Rus

Collaborators

Aykut Satici

Russ Tedrake

Alumni

Andrew Marchese

Bianca Homberg

Current Projects

A Recipe for Soft Fluidic Elastomer Robots

Morphologies Extremely soft and highly compliant fluidic elastomer robots. (a) Ribbed planar manipulator, (b) Cylindrical manipulator with gripper, (c) Self-contained pneumatic fish, (d) Spatial cylindrical manipulator, and (e) Self-contained hydraulic fish.

We provide approaches to designing and fabricating soft fluidic elastomer robots. That is, three viable actuator morphologies composed entirely from soft silicone rubber are explored, and these morphologies are differentiated by their internal channel structure, namely, ribbed, cylindrical, and pleated. Additionally, three distinct casting-based fabrication processes are explored: lamination-based casting, retractable-pin-based casting, and lost-wax-based casting. Furthermore, two ways of fabricating a multiple DOF robot are explored: casting the complete robot as a whole and casting single degree of freedom (DOF) segments with subsequent concatenation. We experimentally validate each soft actuator morphology and fabrication process by creating multiple physical soft robot prototypes.

Publications:

Marchese, Andrew D., Katzschmann, Robert K., Rus, Daniela - A Recipe for Soft Fluidic Elastomer Robots
Soft Robotics 2(1):7--25,2015
Pdf http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/soro.2014.0022
Bibtex
Author : Marchese, Andrew D., Katzschmann, Robert K., Rus, Daniela
Title : A Recipe for Soft Fluidic Elastomer Robots
In : Soft Robotics -
Address :
Date : 2015

Soft Jumping Cube

Soft-bodied robots are designed to work in the physical world with a high compliance, while most of them lack in highly dynamic motion. In this paper, we present a soft-bodied jumping robot, which leverages its body’s elasticity to achieve a highly dynamic passive bouncing motion after an active jumping motion. This robot has a cubic shape. It is covered by silicone foam, and each of its six faces has an opening to allow for jumping actuation. By winding up and releasing an elastic strip, the robot can jump in two directions at any orientation. We present the design, and fabrication process, and experimental results. By comparing this robot with a rigid version of the robot, we show that this soft-bodied robot can use a single jump to travel longer forward than its rigid counterpart.

Li, Shuguang, Katzschmann, Robert K, Rus, Daniela - A soft cube capable of controllable continuous jumping
Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2015 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on ,2015
Pdf Bibtex
Author : Li, Shuguang, Katzschmann, Robert K, Rus, Daniela
Title : A soft cube capable of controllable continuous jumping
In : Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2015 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on -
Address :
Date : 2015

Soft Robotic Hand

The soft robotic hand, mounted to the wrist of a Baxter robot, is picking up a sample object.

This work presents a soft hand capable of robustly grasping and identifying objects based on internal state measurements. A highly compliant hand allows for intrinsic robustness to grasping uncertainty, but the specific configuration of the hand and object is not known, leaving undetermined if a grasp was successful in picking up the right object. A soft finger was adapted and combined to form a three finger gripper that can easily be attached to existing robots, for example, to the wrist of the Baxter robot. Resistive bend sensors were added within each finger to provide a configuration estimate sufficient for distinguishing between a set of objects. With one data point from each finger, the object grasped by the gripper can be identified. A clustering algorithm to find the correspondence for each grasped object is presented for both enveloping grasps and pinch grasps. This hand is a first step towards robust proprioceptive soft grasping.

Link to Paper: Haptic Identification of Objects using a Modular Soft Robotic Gripper

Publications:

Homberg, Bianca, Katzschmann, Robert K, Dogar, Mehmet, Rus, Daniela - Haptic Identification of Objects using a Modular Soft Robotic Gripper
Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2015 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on ,2015
Pdf Bibtex
Author : Homberg, Bianca, Katzschmann, Robert K, Dogar, Mehmet, Rus, Daniela
Title : Haptic Identification of Objects using a Modular Soft Robotic Gripper
In : Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2015 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on -
Address :
Date : 2015
Choi, Changhyun, DelPreto, Joseph, Rus, Daniela - Using Vision for Pre- and Post-grasping Object Localization for Soft Hands
International Symposium on Experimental Robotics (ISER), 2016 (Accepted) ,2016
Bibtex
Author : Choi, Changhyun, DelPreto, Joseph, Rus, Daniela
Title : Using Vision for Pre- and Post-grasping Object Localization for Soft Hands
In : International Symposium on Experimental Robotics (ISER), 2016 (Accepted) -
Address :
Date : 2016

Soft Robotic Fish

Pneumatic Fish for Rapid Planar Movements

Details of a soft-bodied robotic fish. Top, a dorsal view of the fish showing (A) rigid anterior, (B) center of mass, (C) anterior trunk muscle-like actuator pair, (D) inextensible vertebrate-like constraint, (E) posterior trunk actuator pair, (F) passively actuated caudal fin. Center, a cross-sectional rendering of the mechanism showing, (G) fluidic elastomer channels grouped into antagonistic actuator, (H) flexible constraint layer, (I) pressurized elastomer channels in agonistic actuator. Bottom, an exploded view of the robot detailing (J) silicone skin, (K) communication and control electronics, (L) compressed gas cylinder and regulator, (M) flow control valves, (N) actuator access port, (O) plastic fuselage, (P) videography markers, (Q) silicone elastomer trunk.

Coverage by MIT news video

More fish swimming in this video

We describe an autonomous soft-bodied robot that is both self-contained and capable of rapid, continuum-body motion. We detail the design, modeling, fabrication, and control of the soft fish, focusing on enabling the robot to perform rapid escape responses. The robot employs a compliant body with embedded actuators emulating the slender anatomical form of a fish. In addition, the robot has a novel fluidic actuation system that drives body motion and has all the subsystems of a traditional robot onboard: power, actuation, processing, and control. At the core of the fish’s soft body is an array of fluidic elastomer actuators. We design the fish to emulate escape responses in addition to forward swimming because such maneuvers require rapid body accelerations and continuum-body motion. These maneuvers showcase the performance capabilities of this self-contained robot. The kinematics and controllability of the robot during simulated escape response maneuvers are analyzed and compared with studies on biological fish. We show that during escape responses, the soft-bodied robot has similar input–output relationships to those observed in biological fish. The major implication of this work is that we show soft robots can be both self-contained and capable of rapid body motion.

Publications:

Marchese, Andrew D, Onal, Cagdas D, Rus, Daniela - Autonomous Soft Robotic Fish Capable of Escape Maneuvers Using Fluidic Elastomer Actuators
Soft Robotics 1(1):75--87, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Floor New Rochelle, NY 10801 USA, March 2014
Pdf Bibtex
Author : Marchese, Andrew D, Onal, Cagdas D, Rus, Daniela
Title : Autonomous Soft Robotic Fish Capable of Escape Maneuvers Using Fluidic Elastomer Actuators
In : Soft Robotics -
Address : Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Floor New Rochelle, NY 10801 USA
Date : March 2014
Andrew D. Marchese, Cagdas D. Onal, Daniela Rus - Towards a Self-Contained Soft Robotic Fish: On-Board Pressure Generation and Embedded Electro-Permanent Magnet Valves
International Symposium on Experimental Robotics (ISER) , Quebec City, Canada, June 2012
Pdf Bibtex
Author : Andrew D. Marchese, Cagdas D. Onal, Daniela Rus
Title : Towards a Self-Contained Soft Robotic Fish: On-Board Pressure Generation and Embedded Electro-Permanent Magnet Valves
In : International Symposium on Experimental Robotics (ISER) -
Address : Quebec City, Canada
Date : June 2012

Hydraulic Fish with 3D Movement

Watch the robotic fish swimming in three dimensions: video

A music video featuring the robotic: video

Soft Robotic Fish with hydraulic actuation performing a 3D turn underwater.

This work presents an autonomous soft-bodied robotic fish that is hydraulically actuated and capable of sustained swimming in three dimensions. The design of a fish-like soft body has been extended to deform under hydraulic instead of pneumatic power. Moreover, a new closed-circuit drive system that uses water as a transmission fluid is used to actuate the soft body. Circulation of water through internal body channels provides control over the fish's caudal fin propulsion and yaw motion. A new fabrication technique for the soft body is described, which allows for arbitrary internal fluidic channels, enabling a wide-range of continuous body deformations. Furthermore, dynamic diving capabilities are introduced through pectoral fins as dive planes. These innovations enable prolonged fish-like locomotion in three dimensions.

Keywords: Soft Robotics, Robotic Fish, Hydraulic Actuation, Underwater Locomotion, Lost-Wax Silicone Casting, Soft Actuator Fabrication, Fluidic Elastomer Actuator

Paper Submissions:

Robert K. Katzschmann, Andrew D. Marchese, Daniela Rus - Hydraulic Autonomous Soft Robotic Fish for 3D Swimming
International Symposium on Experimental Robotics (ISER) , Marrakech, Morocco, June 2014
Pdf Bibtex
Author : Robert K. Katzschmann, Andrew D. Marchese, Daniela Rus
Title : Hydraulic Autonomous Soft Robotic Fish for 3D Swimming
In : International Symposium on Experimental Robotics (ISER) -
Address : Marrakech, Morocco
Date : June 2014

Acoustic Communication Module

Acoustic communication module enables underwater remote control.

An acoustic communication module for remote control underwater that fits in very compact robots and whose custom algorithms can be executed by a low power embedded microcontroller. The module was incorporated into a soft robotic fish and tested in the open ocean.

An end-to-end compact acoustic communication system was designed for easy integration into remotely controlled underwater operations. The system supports up to 2048 commands that are encoded as 16 bit words. We present the design, hardware, and supporting algorithms for this system. A pulse-based FSK modulation scheme is presented, along with a method of demodulation requiring minimal processing power that leverages the Goertzel algorithm and dynamic peak detection. We packaged the system together with an intuitive user interface for remotely controlling an autonomous underwater vehicle. We evaluated this system in the pool and in the open ocean. We present the communication data collected during experiments using the system to control an underwater robot.

Link to Paper: Delpreto - 2015 - A Compact Acoustic Communication Module for Remote Control Underwater.pdf

DelPreto, Joseph, Katzschmann, Robert, MacCurdy, Robert, Rus, Daniela - A Compact Acoustic Communication Module for Remote Control Underwater
Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Underwater Networks & Systems pp. 13:1--13:7, New York, NY, USA,2015
http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2831296.2831337
Bibtex
Author : DelPreto, Joseph, Katzschmann, Robert, MacCurdy, Robert, Rus, Daniela
Title : A Compact Acoustic Communication Module for Remote Control Underwater
In : Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Underwater Networks & Systems -
Address : New York, NY, USA
Date : 2015

Cyclic Hydraulic Actuation for Soft Robotic Devices

Overview of all tested pump designs. Top row: 1) Brushed external gear pump, 2) Brushed impeller pump, 3) Brushless external gear pump with rotating valve. Bottom row: 4) Brushless external gear pump, 5) Dual centrifugal pump, 6) Brushless centrifugal pump with rotating valve.

Undulating structures are one of the most diverse and successful forms of locomotion in nature, both on ground and in water. This paper presents a comparative study for actuation by undulation in water.We focus on actuating a 1DOF systems with several mechanisms. A hydraulic pump attached to a soft body allows for water movement between two inner cavities, ultimately leading to a flexing actuation in a side-to-side manner. The effectiveness of six different, self-contained designs based on centrifugal pump, flexible impeller pump, external gear pump and rotating valves are compared. These hydraulic actuation systems combined with soft test bodies were then measured at a lower and higher oscillation frequency. The deflection characteristics of the soft body, the acoustic noise of the pump and the overall efficiency of the system are recorded. A brushless, centrifugal pump combined with a novel rotating valve performed at both test frequencies as the most efficient pump, producing sufficiently large cyclic body deflections along with the least acoustic noise among all pumps tested. An external gear pump design produced the largest body deflection, but consumes an order of magnitude more power and produced high noise levels. Further refinement remains on determining the suitable oscillation frequencies and inner cavity designs for optimal efficiency and movement.

Keywords: Cyclic Actuation, Hydraulic Actuation, Centrifugal Pumps, Gear Pumps, Impeller Pumps, Underwater Locomotion, Fluidic Elastomer Actuator, Soft Robotics, Robotic Fish

Link to Paper: Cyclic Hydraulic Actuation for Soft Robotic Devices

Katzschmann, Robert K, de Maille, Austin, Dorhout, David L, Rus, Daniela - Cyclic Hydraulic Actuation for Soft Robotic Devices
Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2016 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on , Daejeon,2016
Pdf Bibtex
Author : Katzschmann, Robert K, de Maille, Austin, Dorhout, David L, Rus, Daniela
Title : Cyclic Hydraulic Actuation for Soft Robotic Devices
In : Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2016 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on -
Address : Daejeon
Date : 2016

Soft Planar Manipulation

Grasping Manipulation

The soft manipulator is grasping an object.

Watch the grasping arm in action: VIDEO

This work presents the development of an autonomous motion planning algorithm for a soft planar grasping manipulator capable of grasp-and-place operations by encapsulation with uncertainty in the position and shape of the object. The end effector of the soft manipulator is fabricated in one piece without weakening seams using lost-wax casting instead of the commonly used multi-layer lamination process. The soft manipulation system can grasp randomly positioned objects within its reachable envelope and move them to a desired location without human intervention. The autonomous planning system leverages the compliance and continuum bending of the soft grasping manipulator to achieve repeatable grasps in the presence of uncertainty. A suite of experiments is presented that demonstrates the system's capabilities.

Robert K. Katzschmann, Andrew D. Marchese, Daniela Rus - Autonomous Object Manipulation using a Soft Planar Grasping Manipulator
Soft Robotics ,2015
Bibtex
Author : Robert K. Katzschmann, Andrew D. Marchese, Daniela Rus
Title : Autonomous Object Manipulation using a Soft Planar Grasping Manipulator
In : Soft Robotics -
Address :
Date : 2015

Whole Arm Motion

Experimental validation of the soft planar manipulator's ability to autonomously navigate through a confined environment to reach a goal state.

Watch the whole arm planner in action: VIDEO

Soft continuum manipulators have the advantage of being more compliant and having more degrees of freedom than rigid redundant manipulators. This attribute should allow soft manipulators to autonomously execute highly dexterous tasks. However, current approaches to motion planning, inverse kinematics, and even design limit the capacity of soft manipulators to take full advantage of their inherent compliance. We provide a computational approach to whole arm planning for a soft planar manipulator that advances the arm’s end effector pose in task space while simultaneously considering the arm’s entire envelope in proximity to a confined environment. The algorithm solves a series of constrained optimization problems to determine locally optimal inverse kinematics. Due to inherent limitations in modeling the kinematics of a highly compliant soft robot and the local optimality of the planner’s solutions, we also rely on the increased softness of our newly designed manipulator to accomplish the whole arm task, namely the arm’s ability to harmlessly collide with the environment. We detail the design and fabrication of the new modular manipulator as well as the planner’s central algorithm. We experimentally validate our approach by showing that the robotic system is capable of autonomously advancing the soft arm through a pipe-like environment in order to reach distinct goal states.

Andrew D. Marchese, Robert K. Katzschmann, Daniela Rus - Whole Arm Planning for a Soft and Highly Compliant 2D Robotic Manipulator
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , Chicago, IL, USA, September 2014
Pdf Bibtex
Author : Andrew D. Marchese, Robert K. Katzschmann, Daniela Rus
Title : Whole Arm Planning for a Soft and Highly Compliant 2D Robotic Manipulator
In : IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) -
Address : Chicago, IL, USA
Date : September 2014

Kinematics and Control

Kinematics and control of a soft planar arm.

Watch inverse kinematics and curvature controllers in action: VIDEO

We describe the design, fabrication, control, and experimental validation of a soft and highly compliant 2D manipulator. The arm consists of several body segments actuated using bi-directional fluidic elastomer actuators and is fabricated using a novel composite molding process. We use a cascaded PI and PID computation and novel fluidic drive cylinders to provide closed-loop control of curvature for each soft and highly compliant body segment. Furthermore, we develop algorithms to compute the arm’s forward and inverse kinematics in a manner consistent with piece-wise constant curvature continuum manipulators. These computation and control systems enable this highly compliant robot to autonomously follow trajectories. Experimental results with a robot consisting of six segments show that controlled movement of a soft and highly compliant manipulator is feasible.

Publications

Andrew D. Marchese, Konrad Komorowski, and Cagdas D. Onal, Daniela Rus - Design and Control of a Soft and Continuously Deformable 2D Robotic Manipulation System
Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) , Hong Kong, China, June 2014
Pdf Bibtex
Author : Andrew D. Marchese, Konrad Komorowski, and Cagdas D. Onal, Daniela Rus
Title : Design and Control of a Soft and Continuously Deformable 2D Robotic Manipulation System
In : Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) -
Address : Hong Kong, China
Date : June 2014

Printable Hydraulics

Printable Hydraulics: A new method for fabricating force-transmission elements within robots

Two fingers, connected in an antagonistic configuration make a soft gripper.

Multi-material additive-manufacturing techniques offer a compelling alternative to conventional rigid and soft robot fabrication techniques, allowing materials with widely varying mechanical properties to be placed at arbitrary locations within a structure, and enabling design iterations to be rapidly fabricated with trivial effort. This capability enables complex composite materials with new bulk properties, and in contrast to virtually all other fabrication techniques, the incremental costs of additional design complexity when using additive manufacturing are zero. We show how commercial multi-material 3D printers can be adapted to co-fabricate solids and fluids within the same 3D-printed structure, demonstrating a new capability for transmitting force within 3D-printed assemblies: Printable Hydraulics.

Link to dedicated page

Robert MacCurdy, Robert Katzschmann, Youbin Kim, Daniela Rus - Printable Hydraulics: A Method for Fabricating Robots by 3D Co-Printing Solids and Liquids
Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2016 IEEE International Conference on ,2016
Pdf Bibtex
Author : Robert MacCurdy, Robert Katzschmann, Youbin Kim, Daniela Rus
Title : Printable Hydraulics: A Method for Fabricating Robots by 3D Co-Printing Solids and Liquids
In : Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2016 IEEE International Conference on -
Address :
Date : 2016
CSAIL Printed Hydraulics Video

Past Projects

EPM valves

We present the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a novel type of valve that uses an electro-permanent magnet. This valve is then used to build actuators for a soft robot. The developed EPM valves require only a brief (5 ms) pulse of current to turn flow on or off for an indefinite period of time. EPM valves are characterized and demonstrated to be well suited for the control of elastomer fluidic actuators. The valves drive the pressurization and depressurization of fluidic channels within soft actuators. Furthermore, the forward locomotion of a soft, multi-actuator rolling robot is driven by EPM valves. The small size and energy-efficiency of EPM valves may make them valuable in soft mobile robot applications.

Andrew D. Marchese, Cagdas D. Onal, Daniela Rus - Soft Robot Actuators using Energy-Efficient Valves Controlled by Electropermanent Magnets
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , San Francisco, CA, September 2011
Pdf Bibtex
Author : Andrew D. Marchese, Cagdas D. Onal, Daniela Rus
Title : Soft Robot Actuators using Energy-Efficient Valves Controlled by Electropermanent Magnets
In : IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) -
Address : San Francisco, CA
Date : September 2011

Soft Mobile Robots

We wish to develop robot systems that are increasingly more elastic, as a step towards bridging the gap between man-made machines and their biological counterparts. To this end, we develop soft actuators fabricated from elastomer films with embedded fluidic channels. These actuators offer safety and adaptability and may potentially be utilized in robotics, wearable tactile interfaces, and active orthoses or prostheses. The expansion of fluidic channels under pressure creates a bending moment on the actuators and their displacement response follows theoretical predictions. Fluidic actuators require a pressure source, which limits their mobility and mainstream usage. This paper considers instances of mechanisms made from distributed elastomer actuators to generate motion using a chemical means of pressure generation. A mechanical feedback loop controls the chemical decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into oxygen gas in a closed container to self-regulate the actuation pressure. This on-demand pressure generator, called the pneumatic battery, bypasses the need for electrical energy by the direct conversion of chemical to mechanical energy. The portable pump can be operated in any orientation and is used to supply pressure to an elastomeric rolling mobile robot as a representative for a family of soft robots.

Cagdas D. Onal, Xin Chen, George M. Whitesides, Daniela Rus - Soft Mobile Robots with On-Board Chemical Pressure Generation
International Symposium on Robotics Research (ISRR) , Flagstaff, AZ, August 2011
Pdf Bibtex
Author : Cagdas D. Onal, Xin Chen, George M. Whitesides, Daniela Rus
Title : Soft Mobile Robots with On-Board Chemical Pressure Generation
In : International Symposium on Robotics Research (ISRR) -
Address : Flagstaff, AZ
Date : August 2011

Soft Autonomous Material

The impressive agility of living systems seems to stem from modular sensing, actuation and communication capabilities, as well as intelligence embedded in the mechanics in the form of active compliance. As a step towards bridging the gap between man-made machines and their biological counterparts, we developed a class of soft mechanisms that can undergo shape change and locomotion under pneumatic actuation. Sensing, computation, communication and actuation are embedded in the material leading to an amorphous, soft material. Soft mechanisms are harder to control than stiff mechanisms as their kinematics are difficult to model and their degrees of freedom are large. Here we show instances of such mechanisms made from identical cellular elements and demonstrate shape changing, and autonomous, sensor-based locomotion using distributed control. We show that the flexible system is accurately modeled by an equivalent spring-mass model and that shape change of each element is linear with applied pressure. We also derive a distributed feedback control law that lets a belt-shaped robot made of flexible elements locomote and climb up inclinations. These mechanisms and algorithms may provide a basis for creating a new generation of biomimetic soft robots that can negotiate openings and manipulate objects with an unprecedented level of compliance and robustness.

Nikolaus Correll, Cagdas D. Onal, Haiyi Liang, Erik Schoenfeld, Daniela Rus - Soft Autonomous Materials - Using Active Elasticity and Embedded Distributed Computation
12th International Symposium on Experimental Robotics , New Delhi, India, December 2010
Pdf Bibtex
Author : Nikolaus Correll, Cagdas D. Onal, Haiyi Liang, Erik Schoenfeld, Daniela Rus
Title : Soft Autonomous Materials - Using Active Elasticity and Embedded Distributed Computation
In : 12th International Symposium on Experimental Robotics -
Address : New Delhi, India
Date : December 2010

Soft Worm

We present a soft robotic platform that exhibits peristaltic locomotion. The design principle is based on the unique antagonistic arrangement of radial/circular and longitudinal muscle groups of Oligochaeta. Sequential antagonistic motion is achieved in a flexible braided mesh-tube structure with NiTi coil actuators. A numerical model for the mesh structure describes how peristaltic motion induces robust locomotion and details the deformation by the contraction of NiTi actuators. Several peristaltic locomotion modes are modeled, tested, and compared on the basis of locomotion speed. The entire mechanical structure is made of flexible mesh materials and can withstand significant external impacts during locomotion. This approach can enable a completely soft robotic platform by employing a flexible control unit and energy sources.

Sangok Seok, Cagdas D. Onal, Robert Wood, Daniela Rus, Sangbae Kim - Peristaltic Locomotion with Antagonistic Actuators in Soft Robotics
Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) , May 2010
Pdf Bibtex
Author : Sangok Seok, Cagdas D. Onal, Robert Wood, Daniela Rus, Sangbae Kim
Title : Peristaltic Locomotion with Antagonistic Actuators in Soft Robotics
In : Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) -
Address :
Date : May 2010

Collaborators

Robert Wood

Sangbae Kim

Cagdas Onal

Nikolaus Correll

Soft Robotics Communities and Websites

Soft Robotics Toolkit

RoboSoft Community

IEEE RAS Technical Committee on Soft Robotics

Personal tools