Electronic Voting Bibliography
This is a list of papers which address the issues of electronic
voting, presented as a starting point for someone interested in
the issues involved.
Prepared by Rachel Greenstadt, January 2000.
This bibliography compiled by Rachel Greenstadt comments, additions, and suggestions appreciated.
- J. Benaloh, M. Yung. Distributing the power of a government to enhance
the privacy of the voters. In ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed
Computing, `986, pages 52-62
- J.C. Benaloh, Verifiable Secret-Ballot Elections,
Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, YALEU/CDS/TR-561, Dec 1987
Presents an election scheme based upon secret sharing and the
prime residuosity assumption
- Michael Ben-Or and Nathan Linial. Collective coin flipping, robust voting
schemes and minima of Banzhaf values. In 26th Annual Symposium on
Foundations of Computer Science, pages 408-416, Portland, Oregon, 21-23
October 1985, IEEE
- Colin Boyd. A new multiple
key cipher and an improved voting scheme. In J.-J. Quisquater and J.
Vandewalle, editors, Advances in Cryptology -- EUROCRYPT
89, volume 434 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science,
pages 617-625. Springer-Verlag, 1990, 10-13 April 1989.
Presents a muliple key cipher without a trapdoor function and
presents a voting scheme as an application of said cipher.
- D. Chaum. Elections with
unconditionally-secret ballots and disruption
equivalent to breaking RSA.
In Advances in Cryptology - EUROCRYPT '88 (Berlin, 1988),
C. G. Gunther, Ed., vol. 330 of Lecture Notes in Computer
Science, Springer-Verlag, pp. 177-182.
Furthers the idea of using anonymous mix nets for voting and presents
a method by which voters can only vote once but their votes are still
anonymous to the central authority.
- D. Chaum. Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses and Digital Pseudonyms,
Communications of the ACM, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1981, 84-88
Presents the idea of using anonymous channels to separate votes
- L. Chen and M. Burminster. A Practical Secret Voting Scheme which Allows
Voters to Abstain. CHINACRYPT '94, Xidian, China, 11-15 Nov 1994,
- J.Cohen, Improving Privacy in Cryptographic Elections
Yale University Department of Computer Science Technical Report number 372,
- J. Cohen and M. Fischer, A Robust and Verifiable Cryptographically Secure
Election Scheme., Proc. 26th IEEE Symp. on Foundations of Computer Science, Portland, OR (Oct. 1985), 372-382
- Ronald Cramer, Matthew Franklin, Berry Schoenmakers, and Moti Young.
Multi-authority secret-ballot elections with linear work
In Ueli Maurer, editor, Advances in Cryptology -- EUROCRYPT 96,
volume 1070 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 72-83.
Springer-Verlag, 12-16 May 1996.
- Lorrie Faith Cranor and Ron K. Cytron,
Sensus: A Security-Conscious Electronic Polling System for the Internet.
Proceedings of the Hawai`i International Conference on System Sciences
, January 7-10, 1997, Wailea, Hawaii, USA
Presents an implementation of the Fujioka, Okamoto, and Ohta scheme
- R. DeMillo, N. Lynch, and M. Merritt. Cryptographic Protocols,
Proceedings of the 14th Annual Symposium on the Theory of Computing
1982, pages 383-400
- R. DeMillo, and M. Merritt, Protocols for Data Security, Computer
volume 16, n. 2, Feb. 1983, pages 39-50
- Brandon William DuRette. Multiple Administrators for Electronic Voting, Bachelor's Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, May 1999.
Expands the EVOX program developed in the Herschberg thesis for muliple
administrator servers to provide added security
- Atsushi Fujioka, Tatsuaki Okamoto, and Kazuo Ohta. A practical secret voting scheme for large scale elections. In Jennifer Seberry and Yuliang Zheng, editors, Advances in Cryptography--AUSCRYPT '92, volume 718 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 244-251, Gold Coast, Queensland, Austrailia, 13-16 December 1992, Springer-Verlag.
Presents a voting scheme wherein voting is managed by an administrator who
registers and authenticates voters and a counter who tallies votes. This is
the voting scheme used by the implementations that I read about (Sensus, EVOX).
- Mark A. Herschberg. Secure Electronic Voting Using the World Wide Web,
Master's Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Presents an implementation of the Fujioka, Okamoto and Ohta scheme.
- Kenneth R. Iversen. The Application of Cryptographic Zero-Knowledge
Techniques in Computerized Secret Ballot Election Schemes. Ph.D. dissertation,
IDT-report, 1991:3, Norweigan Institute of Technology, Feb. 1991
- Kenneth R. Iversen. A cryptographic
scheme for computerized general elections. In J. Feigenbaum, editor,
Advances in Cryptology -- CRYPTO '91, volume 576 of
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 405-419, 11-15
August 1991. Springer-Verlag, 1992.
Proposes an election scheme based on electronic payment protocols
- M. Merritt. Cryptographic Protocols, Ph.D. dissertaion, Georgia Institute
of Technology, GIT-ICS-83/6, Feb 1983.
- Marrkus Michels and Patrick Horster. Some remarks on a receipt-free and
universally verifiable mix-type voting scheme. In Kwangjo Kim and Tsutomu
Matsumoto, editors, Advances in Cryptology -- ASIACRYPT -96, volume
1163 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 125-132, Kyongju,
Korea, 3-7 Nov 1996, Springer-Verlag
- Valtteri Niemi and Ari Renvall. How to prevent buying of votes in computer
elections. In Josef Peipryzyk and Reihanah Safavi-Naini, editors, Advances
in Cryptology -- ASIACRYPT '94, volume 917 of Lecture Notes in
Computer Science, pages 164-170, Wollongong, Austrailia, 28 November-1 December
- H. Nurmi, A. Salomaa, and L. Santean. Secret Ballot Elections in Computer
Networks, Computers & Security, volume 10, 1991, pages 553-560
- K. Ohta. An Electrical Voting Scheme Using a Single Administrator.
IEICE Spring National Convention, A-294, 1988, v. 1, p. 296
- Choonsik Park, Kazutomo Itoh, and Kaoru Kurosawa.
Efficient anonymous channel and all/nothing election scheme.
In Tor Helleseth, editor, Advances in Cryptology -- EUROCRYPT 93
volume 765 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science pages 248-259,
Springer-Verlag, May 1993
Improves upon Chaum's election scheme based on anonymous channels
by increasing efficiency. The anonymous channel does not increase the
length of the ciphertext in this case. In addition, privacy is maintained
even if the election is disrupted.
- Birgit Pfitzmann.
Breaking an efficient anonymous channel, Eurocrypt '94, LNCS 921,
Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1995, 121-132
Breaks the efficient anonymous channel in the Park, Itoh and Kurosawa
- Kazue Sako. Electronic Voting Schemes Allowing Open Objection to the Tally,
Transactions of the Institue of Electronics, Information, and Communication
Engineers, volume E77-A, n. 1, 1994, pages 24-30.
- Kazue Sako and Joe Killian.
Receipt-free mix-type voting scheme: A practical solution to the implementation
of a voting booth, In Louis C. Guillou and Jean-Jacques Quisquater, editors,
Advances in Cryptology -- EUROCRYPT '95, volume 921 of
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 393-403, Springer-Verlag,
- Kazue Sako and Joe Killian.
Secure voting using partially compatible homomorphisms
In Yvo G. Desmedt, editor, Advances in Cryptology -- CRYPTO '94,
volume 839 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 411-424,
21-25. Springer-Verlag, August 1994
- A. Salomaa, Public-Key Cryptography, Springer-Verlag, 1990
- Bruce Schneier, Applied Cryptography, John Wiley & Sons,
New York, 1994
- Berry Schoenmakers.
A simple publicly verifiable secret sharing scheme and its application to electronic voting
In Advances in Crytoplogy -- CRYPTO '99, Vol. 1666 of
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 148-164, Springer-Verlag