Electronic Voting Bibliography

This is a list of papers which address the issues of electronic voting, presented as a starting point for someone interested in the issues involved.

Prepared by Rachel Greenstadt, January 2000.

  1. J. Benaloh, M. Yung. Distributing the power of a government to enhance the privacy of the voters. In ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, `986, pages 52-62

  2. J.C. Benaloh, Verifiable Secret-Ballot Elections, Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, YALEU/CDS/TR-561, Dec 1987
    Presents an election scheme based upon secret sharing and the prime residuosity assumption

  3. Michael Ben-Or and Nathan Linial. Collective coin flipping, robust voting schemes and minima of Banzhaf values. In 26th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, pages 408-416, Portland, Oregon, 21-23 October 1985, IEEE

  4. Colin Boyd. A new multiple key cipher and an improved voting scheme. In J.-J. Quisquater and J. Vandewalle, editors, Advances in Cryptology -- EUROCRYPT 89, volume 434 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 617-625. Springer-Verlag, 1990, 10-13 April 1989.
    Presents a muliple key cipher without a trapdoor function and presents a voting scheme as an application of said cipher.

  5. D. Chaum. Elections with unconditionally-secret ballots and disruption equivalent to breaking RSA. In Advances in Cryptology - EUROCRYPT '88 (Berlin, 1988), C. G. Gunther, Ed., vol. 330 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, pp. 177-182.
    Furthers the idea of using anonymous mix nets for voting and presents a method by which voters can only vote once but their votes are still anonymous to the central authority.

  6. D. Chaum. Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses and Digital Pseudonyms, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1981, 84-88
    Presents the idea of using anonymous channels to separate votes from votes.

  7. L. Chen and M. Burminster. A Practical Secret Voting Scheme which Allows Voters to Abstain. CHINACRYPT '94, Xidian, China, 11-15 Nov 1994, pages 100-107

  8. J.Cohen, Improving Privacy in Cryptographic Elections Yale University Department of Computer Science Technical Report number 372, March 1985

  9. J. Cohen and M. Fischer, A Robust and Verifiable Cryptographically Secure Election Scheme., Proc. 26th IEEE Symp. on Foundations of Computer Science, Portland, OR (Oct. 1985), 372-382

  10. Ronald Cramer, Matthew Franklin, Berry Schoenmakers, and Moti Young. Multi-authority secret-ballot elections with linear work In Ueli Maurer, editor, Advances in Cryptology -- EUROCRYPT 96, volume 1070 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 72-83. Springer-Verlag, 12-16 May 1996.

  11. Lorrie Faith Cranor and Ron K. Cytron, Sensus: A Security-Conscious Electronic Polling System for the Internet. Proceedings of the Hawai`i International Conference on System Sciences , January 7-10, 1997, Wailea, Hawaii, USA
    Presents an implementation of the Fujioka, Okamoto, and Ohta scheme

  12. R. DeMillo, N. Lynch, and M. Merritt. Cryptographic Protocols, Proceedings of the 14th Annual Symposium on the Theory of Computing 1982, pages 383-400

  13. R. DeMillo, and M. Merritt, Protocols for Data Security, Computer volume 16, n. 2, Feb. 1983, pages 39-50

  14. Brandon William DuRette. Multiple Administrators for Electronic Voting, Bachelor's Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, May 1999.
    Expands the EVOX program developed in the Herschberg thesis for muliple administrator servers to provide added security

  15. Atsushi Fujioka, Tatsuaki Okamoto, and Kazuo Ohta. A practical secret voting scheme for large scale elections. In Jennifer Seberry and Yuliang Zheng, editors, Advances in Cryptography--AUSCRYPT '92, volume 718 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 244-251, Gold Coast, Queensland, Austrailia, 13-16 December 1992, Springer-Verlag.
    Presents a voting scheme wherein voting is managed by an administrator who registers and authenticates voters and a counter who tallies votes. This is the voting scheme used by the implementations that I read about (Sensus, EVOX).

  16. Mark A. Herschberg. Secure Electronic Voting Using the World Wide Web, Master's Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 1997.
    Presents an implementation of the Fujioka, Okamoto and Ohta scheme.

  17. Kenneth R. Iversen. The Application of Cryptographic Zero-Knowledge Techniques in Computerized Secret Ballot Election Schemes. Ph.D. dissertation, IDT-report, 1991:3, Norweigan Institute of Technology, Feb. 1991

  18. Kenneth R. Iversen. A cryptographic scheme for computerized general elections. In J. Feigenbaum, editor, Advances in Cryptology -- CRYPTO '91, volume 576 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 405-419, 11-15 August 1991. Springer-Verlag, 1992.
    Proposes an election scheme based on electronic payment protocols

  19. M. Merritt. Cryptographic Protocols, Ph.D. dissertaion, Georgia Institute of Technology, GIT-ICS-83/6, Feb 1983.

  20. Marrkus Michels and Patrick Horster. Some remarks on a receipt-free and universally verifiable mix-type voting scheme. In Kwangjo Kim and Tsutomu Matsumoto, editors, Advances in Cryptology -- ASIACRYPT -96, volume 1163 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 125-132, Kyongju, Korea, 3-7 Nov 1996, Springer-Verlag

  21. Valtteri Niemi and Ari Renvall. How to prevent buying of votes in computer elections. In Josef Peipryzyk and Reihanah Safavi-Naini, editors, Advances in Cryptology -- ASIACRYPT '94, volume 917 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 164-170, Wollongong, Austrailia, 28 November-1 December 1994, Springer-Verlag.

  22. H. Nurmi, A. Salomaa, and L. Santean. Secret Ballot Elections in Computer Networks, Computers & Security, volume 10, 1991, pages 553-560

  23. K. Ohta. An Electrical Voting Scheme Using a Single Administrator. IEICE Spring National Convention, A-294, 1988, v. 1, p. 296

  24. Choonsik Park, Kazutomo Itoh, and Kaoru Kurosawa. Efficient anonymous channel and all/nothing election scheme. In Tor Helleseth, editor, Advances in Cryptology -- EUROCRYPT 93 volume 765 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science pages 248-259, Springer-Verlag, May 1993
    Improves upon Chaum's election scheme based on anonymous channels by increasing efficiency. The anonymous channel does not increase the length of the ciphertext in this case. In addition, privacy is maintained even if the election is disrupted.

  25. Birgit Pfitzmann. Breaking an efficient anonymous channel, Eurocrypt '94, LNCS 921, Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1995, 121-132
    Breaks the efficient anonymous channel in the Park, Itoh and Kurosawa paper above.

  26. Kazue Sako. Electronic Voting Schemes Allowing Open Objection to the Tally, Transactions of the Institue of Electronics, Information, and Communication Engineers, volume E77-A, n. 1, 1994, pages 24-30.

  27. Kazue Sako and Joe Killian. Receipt-free mix-type voting scheme: A practical solution to the implementation of a voting booth, In Louis C. Guillou and Jean-Jacques Quisquater, editors, Advances in Cryptology -- EUROCRYPT '95, volume 921 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 393-403, Springer-Verlag, May 1995

  28. Kazue Sako and Joe Killian. Secure voting using partially compatible homomorphisms In Yvo G. Desmedt, editor, Advances in Cryptology -- CRYPTO '94, volume 839 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 411-424, 21-25. Springer-Verlag, August 1994

  29. A. Salomaa, Public-Key Cryptography, Springer-Verlag, 1990

  30. Bruce Schneier, Applied Cryptography, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1994

  31. Berry Schoenmakers. A simple publicly verifiable secret sharing scheme and its application to electronic voting In Advances in Crytoplogy -- CRYPTO '99, Vol. 1666 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 148-164, Springer-Verlag 1999

This bibliography compiled by Rachel Greenstadt comments, additions, and suggestions appreciated.